- The Emperor, beloved by all his people
- Relationship between energy and matter (mass)
- (Emergent dualism) Dynamical Systems Theory
- Why do we need theory?
- Five Energy Revolutions
- The first relationship between mankind and fire
- Carbon cycles
- Humans have enlarged their own brains by using fire
- Civilized society created by the brain
The Emperor, beloved by all his people
October 26, 2022
I would like to reiterate. We ask that His Majesty the Emperor please become the founder of a new Christianity.
I am not a researcher, but an ordinary person, so I do not work or live with these thoughts in my daily life. Therefore, I have extracted some sentences from the listed books, edited them, and used them as my message.
This is the third time that Almighty God has asked me to do so, and I would like to ask you to please do so.
I have the honour to be, Your Majesty’s humble and obedient servant,
The following text describes our reasons for asking.
This third letter to His Majesty the Emperor has been refused receipt by the Imperial Household Agency. This is my last letter to the Emperor, as I do not think he will receive it in the future.
Relationship between energy and matter (mass)
It means “chance,” “contingency,” “uncertainty,” “accident,” etc. It can also mean ” It also means “to depend on.
“Contingency theory” is a Japanese term that translates to “environmental adaptation theory. This theory states that there are various environments in the world, and since there is no single best system, the system should change as the environment changes.
This is equivalent to “double conditional dependence.”To make a choice is a negation of the potential that could have been otherwise, and in that sense is a double negation. By experiencing the other as another self that is opaque to oneself, the potential denied in choice is preserved and stabilized as a mutually implied, but unrealized, possibility in both oneself and the other. Luhmann called this situation a double contingency.
|7||cause and effect||cycle|
|8||finite (time)||infinity (space)|
|20||until the end(until you finish)||as (much) as possible|
|21||theory of relativity||quantum mechanics|
|22||particle(quantum mechanics)||wave(quantum mechanics)|
|25||natural science(Approach from the nature side)||social science(approach from the human side)|
|27||(memory) self-awareness||(power of) imagination|
|30||(past to present) ever||(from present to future) from now on|
In this issue, I will try to decipher the dynamical systems theory from the table of dynamical systems theory by using the combination of “mass” and “energy”. I believe that this combination shows a clue about the “solution to global warming,” which is probably the most important concern of people around the world at the moment.
# Dynamical Systems Theory in Psychology, Haruo Okabayashi, (Kaneko Shobo)
# Energy: A Journey Through Energy, Kohsuke Furudate (Eiji Publishing Co., Ltd.
(Emergent dualism) Dynamical Systems Theory
Let us approach emergent dualism with dynamical systems theory. The basic idea of dynamical systems theory is characterized by the fact that it cannot be decomposed. Dynamical systems (dynamic systems) such as organisms, brains, and societies, including human beings, cannot be decomposed and understood. This is because the functions and behaviors of the components of a dynamical system are determined in the context of the whole. The same element changes its behavior in the context of the whole, which in turn changes the whole. In the case of a machine, each component has a specific function, and even if the machine is disassembled, the function of each component remains the same.
In the case of a “living” system, however, the context determines the function of each component. In recent research, the expression “elements are interacting” is often used, but the level of merely interacting does not get to the essence of emergent dualism.
Let me explain what I mean by emergence. Emergence means that free movement in the lower levels of the hierarchical world gives rise to patterns in the upper levels, and that patterns in the upper levels become boundary conditions for the lower levels and indirectly define individual movements. The term emergence was proposed with respect to biological evolution. It is a concept used in evolutionary theory to refer to evolution and development that cannot be predicted or explained by prior conditions.” (Tatsuo Hayashi, Philosophy Encyclopedia, p864, Heibonsha, 1971)
Dynamical systems theory refers to systems that change over time; in fact, it can describe time-based systems with certain characteristics. It is also a mathematical theory that predicts the future state of a system based on its current state and, without the use of mathematical formulas, is expressed by describing spatially or qualitatively how the state of the system changes.
A theory for understanding complex processes in nature must be a theory that satisfies the laws of chance and also includes the laws that relate them to the laws of necessity. In other words, only a theory of complex systems can be a system like consciousness, an important function of the human brain. The dynamical systems theory explains “emergence from disorder to order” in terms of complex systems. In particular, it directs our attention to the emergence of higher-order forms from interactions and cooperation among lower-order components. This process, called self-organization, can now explain change and continuity in physical, biological, and social systems.
The dynamical systems theory attempted to respond to attempts to describe complex changes in human behavior at a given point in time, with the emergence of behavior patterns that had not been seen before. Pioneering developmental researchers such as Darwin, C., Vygotsky, L.S., and Piaget, J., also addressed these issues. Just as in the history of evolution, new species have emerged that did not exist before, so in the life of a human being, new abilities, such as emotions, emerge that did not exist before. It can be said that all living things create new systems as they grow. In this way, the “living” system must be considered as a completely different type of system from that which can be treated by conventional science.
Why do we need theory?
First, I would like to consider why, in order to describe or study a phenomenon of interest, we need a theory to support that phenomenon. There are phenomena in our world, and there are facts behind those phenomena that are usually hidden. Researchers use analytical methods to find the facts behind the phenomena. From these facts, they then find common principles. Concepts are born from these facts, and theories are formed from a collection of concepts. A theory is like a story that explains the reason of the world through a collection of concepts.
Theories can predict outcomes or provide clues to explain or interpret facts. Theories can also organize the phenomena that occur and be the mother from which hypotheses are generated. The efficacy of theory allows us to avoid “wasted experience” and “tremendous trial and error. Having “theory” in one hand may prevent us from falling into “crawling empiricism” or “trial and error hell” by advocating experientialism or empiricism. Theory does not guarantee tremendous success, but it can help you sort out problems and avoid unnecessary failures that do not need to be experienced.
# Quoted from “Theories of Counseling” by Yasutaka Kokubun (Seishinshobo, publisher) (Chapter 1, Introduction p17)
Five Energy Revolutions
Energy is a word that is familiar to us today, yet really difficult to understand correctly. Why is it so difficult? When discussing energy, we often fall into abstract and irreconcilable arguments, and everyone tends to define energy in a way that suits him or her. This is probably the cause of the problem. Science has become so subdivided into different fields that the usage of words has become far beyond the comprehension of the general public.
Our ancestors of prehistoric times recognized energy as an intuition and continued to devise all kinds of ways to make it a powerful item that would help us in the future. Their history began with fire and continues to the present day. Its history can be divided into five major categories, which are briefly described below.
The first energy revolution was the use of fire. The history of energy acquisition by mankind began with the awakening of the usefulness of fire. Cooking with fire enlarged the brain and accelerated human evolution. This was followed by the second energy revolution as we embarked on an agricultural lifestyle. By monopolizing the solar energy that poured onto the land, we were able to secure a steady supply of surplus food, which we then used to build cities and rise to civilization. The invention of the steam engine, a machine that converts energy, triggered the Third Energy Revolution. This broke through the limitations of mankind’s own physical body.
Furthermore, the analysis of the mechanism of electricity and learning how to use it led to the Fourth Energy Revolution. Not only did humanity acquire the technology to convert energy at will, but it also overcame the limitations of the field in energy use by developing power plants and power transmission/distribution networks. Finally, the development of artificial fertilizers led to the Fifth Energy Revolution. Mankind has shattered nature’s limitations in food production with the input of energy and promoted the industrialization of agriculture.
Thus, through the five energy revolutions, we humans have become free users of energy on a tremendous scale. Machines can now provide the power to replace human arm and leg strength. Our brain power, of which we are so proud, can be augmented by the power of information processing technology using electricity. Mankind now possesses the ability to handle at will a power that far surpasses that of our physical bodies. Humanity has also acquired a capacity outside the body for the brain that far surpasses that of the body. We who live in this way are now more than human beings; we are superhumans.
The human brain is, by its very nature, extremely greedy for energy. This insatiable appetite continues unabated even today, when we have access to energy on a scale far greater than the food necessary for the preservation of our species. It demands more energy to become smarter. The brain thinks of ways to acquire more energy.
Our brain’s desire has not only created the ability to expand its capabilities outside of its own body and brain, such as power machines and information technology. It has also released nature’s yoke of nitrogen fixation, and even the food that supports its own metabolism has become energy-soaked.
The first relationship between mankind and fire
About a 40-minute drive north of Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, was the place we were looking for. In the local language, Yanar Dag means “burning mountain.” The presence of an unquenchable flame has been an object of religious belief, and since ancient times it has been a sacred place for Zoroastrians (fire worshipers), for whom fire has been an important religious symbol. The only surviving Zoroastrian temple is located about 10 km southeast of Yanar Dag, and is believed to have been built in the 17th or 18th century.
The close relationship between the region and fire is also implied in the story of Greek mythology. It is the story of Prometheus, who stole fire from the heavens and gave it to mankind. The acquisition of fire laid the foundation for mankind’s prosperity, but on the other hand, Prometheus, who had given fire, incurred the wrath of Zeus. As punishment, Prometheus was chained to a rocky mountain in the Caucasus and had his liver pecked out by an eagle. The story goes that Prometheus is immortal, so his liver regenerates at night and he continues to suffer the same torment every day.
The story of Promethean fire is believed to have a strong correlation to this region near Baku. It was probably through contact with the unquenchable natural fire in this land that mankind first learned the value of mastering fire. They must have felt that this land, which provided a constant supply of fire, which is difficult to make by oneself, was a gift from the gods.
If we look around at the fuels that produce fire on the earth, we find that not only firewood and charcoal, but also fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are all organic compounds derived from living organisms. Fossil fuels are the result of the death of plants, plankton, and other microorganisms that flourished in ancient times and fossilized over a long period of time.
In fact, most of the fire we see on earth is the final form of our life. Fire is life itself, or perhaps it would be more accurate to say that fire is life incarnate. Fire is often significant in the spiritual rituals of religion and witchcraft. It can be said that since ancient times, mankind has captured the essence of fire.
We living organisms obtain energy for our daily lives by burning organic compounds stored in our bodies using oxygen taken in through respiration. The result of combustion is carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide exhaled into the atmosphere is then reintroduced into the biological cycle through photosynthesis by plants, where it is fixed. When the organism dies, it is broken down by microorganisms, and the carbon that made up its body is released back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide thus returned to the atmosphere is then reintroduced into the living world through the photosynthetic activity of plants.
This daily circulation of carbon between the atmosphere and living organisms through respiration, death, and combustion is called the carbon cycle. The Earth is a closed system that does not exchange materials with the outside world, except for occasional meteorites and cosmic dust. Therefore, the total amount of carbon on the earth can be regarded as constant.
For animals that cannot photosynthesize, securing food is a matter of life and death. Microorganisms, insects, fish, amphibians, birds, mammals, and all other living creatures live desperately in a food chain of eat or be eaten.
Animals at the lower end of the food chain obtain the energy they need to survive by eating plants and fungi. Many fungi live in places where sunlight does not reach, such as underground or deep in the ocean, and obtain energy through chemical reactions. In the terrestrial ecosystems to which we humans are subordinate, solar energy captured by plants through photosynthesis is the largest source of energy.
Carnivorous animals at the top of the food chain are indirectly eating plants by eating herbivorous animals. In other words, the food chain of animals in the natural environment surrounding living organisms means that all animals are competing fiercely for the solar energy captured by plants. Of course, humans, as a species of animals, are also members of this fierce competition.
Humans have enlarged their own brains by using fire
If you were asked to name a few characteristics of humans as animals, what would you say? There is one major trait that humans should be proud of that is not well known. Of course, you and I both have them. It is the small size of our stomach and intestines in comparison to our body size. It is well known that the brain requires a lot of energy to function. But the stomach and intestines are also organs that require large amounts of energy, just like the brain.
Most mammals that weigh about the same as humans have a brain about one-fifth the size of humans, while their gastrointestinal tracts are twice as long as ours. In other words, compared to other animals, we humans have a very large brain to body weight ratio and a much smaller gastrointestinal tract. A smaller gastrointestinal tract means that we are unable to digest food adequately, resulting in less energy being taken into the body. How did our ancestors solve this problem?
One is to take more nutritious food. The beginning of meat eating is a good example of this. Meat eating may have provided our ancestors with the wisdom that allowed them to use fire. The development of the brain and the shrinking of the gastrointestinal tract that we have acquired is thought to have been brought about by the invention of cooking. Cooking” is the process of pounding, chopping, grinding, and heating food. Cooking food dramatically reduces the burden on the gastrointestinal tract for its absorption.
Chimpanzees in the wild spend more than six hours a day chewing their food. Physical processing of food can dramatically reduce mealtime. A further critical change to food is in heating food. Heat can transform starches and proteins, dramatically increasing the nutritional value of food.
In modern times, humans rarely eat food without “cooking” it. Our ancestors invented “cooking” as a way to process part of the work of digesting food in the body’s digestive system before eating.
The excess energy from “cooking” food was invested intensively in the brain, which determined the direction of our ancestors’ evolution. By heating food and thereby indirectly introducing the energy of fire into our bodies, our brilliant brains were able to grow to a size that far exceeded the brain size allowed for raw food in the natural world. In other words, our brains instinctively tend to desire “more energy. This is because there is an underlying desire in our brains to be smarter.
Civilized society created by the brain
Let us take a bird’s eye view of the civilized society that mankind has created. Isn’t this where the essence of the human brain emerges? Society developed by increasing energy consumption. In particular, societies after the Industrial Revolution have achieved rapid progress and development of electronic devices by “giving” energy such as fossil fuels to machines rather than to human bodies themselves to power steam engines and automobiles, and to generate electricity.
It is in the nature of our brains to demand energy without limit. We have extended our digestible food to fossil fuels and uranium ore. And this glorious civilization we have created seems to be a monster that has dramatically increased the energy capacity of our digestive system and further enlarged our brains. The question now being asked is whether there is any future for a society that accelerates this kind of “brainification” dependent on external energy input. I believe that the energy-related problems of our time are fundamental questions that emerge by unraveling the relationship between humankind and fire.